Massive venous air embolism occurs in a patient who is undergoing craniotomy in the sitting position with nitrous oxide, oxygen, fentanyl anesthesia. Which of the following changes in end-tidal (ET) concentrations of carbon dioxide, nitrogen, and nitrous oxide are most likely in this patient? (ETCO2, ETN2, ETN2O)
Which of the following findings on the left is most likely to be associated with an increased risk of complications with cannulation of the left internal jugular vein compared with cannulation of the right internal jugular vein?
(A) Longer recurrent laryngeal nerve
(B) Lower location of the cupola of the pleura
(C) More acute angle between the internal jugular and innominate veins
A 70-year-old man with mild hypertension and aortoiliac occlusive disease is undergoing aortofemoral bypass grafting. Which of the following interventions is most effective in maintaining renal perfusion during infrarenal aortic clamping?