128 questions match your search.

ADVANCED Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics   Pediatric  

A 15-kg, 3-year-old child is anesthetized for an inguinal hernia repair with halothane and nitrous oxide. The trachea is intubated after administration of succinylcholine 30 mg. At the conclusion of the 45-minute procedure, the child is not breathing; a peripheral nerve twitch monitor indicates no response to a train-of-four stimulus. Further investigation is most likely to show


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ADVANCED Pediatric  

Nausea and vomiting in pediatric outpatients are


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ADVANCED Equipment & Physics   Pediatric  

A 5-year-old boy is to undergo microlaryngeal carbon dioxide laser vaporization of laryngotracheal papillomas under halothane administered through a small polyvinylchloride (PVC) endotracheal tube. The diluent gas mixture LEAST likely to support laser combustion of the PVC tube is


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ADVANCED Transfusions & Fluids   Pediatric  

An 8-kg, 1-year-old child has a measured blood loss of 50 ml during the first two hours of a rectal pull-through operation. Preoperative hematocrit was 31%. Balanced saline solution 150 ml has been administered for replacement. Urine output has been 2 ml for the last hour, heart rate is 160 bpm, and blood pressure is 40/15 mmHg. The most appropriate fluid therapy is,


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ADVANCED Pediatric  

A full-term neonate has physical findings suggestive of congenital diaphragmatic hernia. Initial Apgar score is 2. Which of the following is the most appropriate initial management?


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ADVANCED Pediatric  

The most important anesthetic consideration in Pierre Robin syndrome is


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ADVANCED Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics   Pediatric  

Anesthesia is induced with halothane in a 3-year-old girl. Sixty seconds after administration of succinylcholine 1 mg/kg intravenously, heart rate decreases rapidly from 120 to 60 bpm. The most likely cause is


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ADVANCED Pediatric  

The most effective treatment of severe carbon monoxide poisoning in a 2-year-old child is


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ADVANCED Pediatric  

Which of the following statements concerning the retinopathy of prematurity is true?


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ADVANCED Pediatric  

A 6-year-old child with severe cerebral palsy is scheduled for general anesthesia. He is at increased risk for each of the following EXCEPT


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ADVANCED Pediatric  

A 2.2-kg, 6-hour-old neonate is to undergo gastrostomy followed by repair of a tracheoesophageal fistula. During induction with halothane, air, and oxygen, the abdomen becomes distended. Appropriate management is to


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BASIC Equipment & Physics   Respiratory & Critical Care   Pediatric  

A 35-kg child requires mechanical ventilation with pure oxygen at a tidal volume of 350 ml and a rate of 20/min during a severe asthma attack. The most likely cause of severe hypotension after initiating mechanical ventilation is


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ADVANCED Pediatric   Cardiac  

Which of the following time concentration curves would be expected in arterial blood following intravenous injection of indocyanine green dye in a 3-year-old child with a small ventricular septal defect?

1990b 24

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ADVANCED Pediatric  

A 4-year-old child with myelomeningocele and a ventriculoperitoneal shunt is scheduled for bladder augmentation. One year ago, hypotension and bronchospasm occurred during laparotomy for placement of a feeding gastrostomy and responded to fluids and epinephrine. At that time, anesthesia was induced with thiopental, the trachea was intubated with a polyvinyl tracheal tube following administration of succinylcholine, and anesthesia was maintained with halothane and nitrous oxide. No diagnostic tests were performed after that incident. Which of the following should be avoided during the bladder augmentation?


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ADVANCED Pediatric   Neuro  

A 4-month-old child undergoing a craniectomy for craniosynostosis is anesthetized with nitrous oxide and halothane. Suddenly the systolic blood pressure decreases from 75 to 30 mmHg, and the PetCO2 decreases from 35 to 6 mmHg. Which of the following maneuvers is LEAST likely to have a beneficial effect?


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ADVANCED Pediatric  

A 22-year-old woman with severe preeclampsia vaginally delivers a 3-kg infant after 12 hours of treatment with magnesium sulfate and continuous epidural infusion of bupivacaine 0.0625% and fentanyl 1 mcg/ml at 10 ml/hr. The infant is pink and hypotonic; heart rate is 110 bpm and blood pressure is 35/25 mmHg. Which of the following is the most appropriate initial management of the infant?


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ADVANCED Pediatric  

An infant with congenital lobar emphysema is scheduled for thoracotomy. Which of the following should be included in the anesthetic management of this infant?


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ADVANCED Respiratory & Critical Care   Pediatric  

An 8-year-old child with chronic renal failure is scheduled for an operation to create an arteriovenous fistula. Laboratory studies include: Hemoglobin 6.5 g/dl, Blood gases (breathing air) : PaO2 97 mmHg, PaCO2 29 mmHg, pH 7.30 Sodium 129 mEq/L Potassium 5.5 mEq/L Chloride 101 mEq/L Bicarbonate 15 mEq/L. Before inducing general anesthesia, which of the following abnormalities should be corrected?


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ADVANCED Pediatric  

Which of the following parts of the infant's airway determines the appropriate diameter of a nasotracheal tube?


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ADVANCED Pediatric  

Three hours prior to induction of anesthesia for elective laparotomy, a 40-kg 8-year-old boy is anxious and clings to his parents. Which of the following preanesthetic medications is most appropriate?


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ADVANCED Pediatric  

The portion of the infant airway with the smallest cross-sectional area occurs at the level of the


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ADVANCED Pediatric  

A delay in surgery for 24 to 48 hours for preoperative stabilization and preparation is acceptable in each of the following neonatal conditions EXCEPT


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ADVANCED Pediatric  

Optimal ventilation of a newborn with congenital diaphragmatic hernia should consist of


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ADVANCED Pediatric  

Which of the following should be included in the preoperative management of a 12-year-old patient with Duchenne's muscular dystrophy who is unable to ambulate?


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ADVANCED Pediatric  

Infants with untreated pyloric stenosis are at increased risk for each of the following EXCEPT


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ADVANCED Pediatric  

A 2-year-old child is hospitalized for exposure. Rectal temperature is 30°C. The most appropriate method of warming is to


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ADVANCED Equipment & Physics   Pediatric   Neuro  

An otherwise healthy 16-year-old girl is undergoing posterior spinal fusion for thoracolumbar scoliosis. During the procedure, the most likely cause of a marked decrease in the amplitude of the somatosensory evoked potentials after stimulation of the posterior tibial nerve is


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ADVANCED Pediatric  

An infant becomes cyanotic and hypotensive after ventilatory pressures increase to 45 cm H2O during closure of the abdominal wall at the end of a gastroschisis repair. The most appropriate next step is to


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ADVANCED General   Pediatric  

Compared with a normal child, which of the following is expected during inhalation induction in a child with a 2:1 left-to-right intracardiac shunt?


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ADVANCED Equipment & Physics   General   Pediatric  

During laser excision of vocal cord polyps in a 5-year-old boy, dark smoke suddenly appears in the surgical field. The trachea is intubated and anesthesia is being maintained with halothane, nitrous oxide, and oxygen. The most appropriate initial step is to


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ADVANCED Pediatric   Regional & Pain  

Which of the following complications of caudal anesthesia with 0.25% bupivacaine is more likely in children than in adults?


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ADVANCED Pediatric   Cardiac  

During uncomplicated mask induction with halothane and 50% nitrous oxide in oxygen in a 6-month-old infant with a large ventricular septal defect and valvular pulmonic stenosis, SpO2 decreases from 85% (room air) to 60%; heart rate is 100 bpm and blood pressure is 62/40 mmHg. The most appropriate management is to


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ADVANCED Pediatric   OB  

At the time of cesarean delivery, thick dark meconium is noted and the newborn is flaccid, apneic, bradycardic, and cyanotic. The most appropriate initial action is


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ADVANCED Pediatric  

A 6-year-old child with asthma begins wheezing during anesthesia with halothane and nitrous oxide in oxygen. A loading dose of aminophylline is administered followed by continuous infusion. Premature ventricular contractions appear on the ECG. The most appropriate management is to


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ADVANCED Pediatric  

Which of the following findings is most likely in a 3-year-old child who has a secundum-type atrial septal defect with a 2:1 left-to-right shunt?


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ADVANCED Pediatric  

Which of the following should be included in the preoperative management of a 12-year-old patient with Duchenne muscular dystrophy who is unable to ambulate?


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ADVANCED Pediatric  

A 5-year-old child is brought to the emergency department in considerable respiratory distress. He is sitting leaning forward and drooling. He was well until four hours ago, when temperature increased to 38.9°C and he complained of a sore throat. The most appropriate initial management is to


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ADVANCED Pediatric   OB  

Which of the following statements regarding fetal heart rate patterns is true?


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BASIC Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics   Pediatric  

A 16-year-old girl is receiving isoflurane, nitrous oxide, oxygen, and pancuronium for insertion of a Harrington rod. In order to perform a "wake-up test" the muscle relaxant was antagonized with neostigmine 2.5 mg and atropine 1 mg. The patient abruptly moved all extremities and was given thiopental 100 mg and succinylcholine 100 mg rapidly. Forty-five minutes later no twitch could be elicited with a nerve stimulator. The most likely explanation is


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ADVANCED Pediatric   Regional & Pain  

Which of the following statements concerning caudal anesthesia in children is true?


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ADVANCED Pediatric   Regional & Pain  

An 8-kg, 1-year-old boy is scheduled for a bilateral inguinal hernia repair. If regional anesthesia is to be used for post-operative analgesia, which of the following statements is true?


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ADVANCED Pediatric  

Compared with the adult airway, the airway of an infant is characterized by


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ADVANCED Pediatric  

Which of the following is the primary physiologic response in a neonate exposed to a hypothermic environment?


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ADVANCED Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics   Pediatric  

The alveolar concentrations of anesthetics increase more rapidly in children than in adults because of a greater


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ADVANCED Pediatric  

Which the following findings is most hazardous in premature infants?


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ADVANCED Pediatric  

In a 5-kg boy with Treacher Collins syndrome who is to undergo cleft palate repair, endotracheal intubation is best accomplished with


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ADVANCED Pediatric  

A 20-kg, 6-year-old boy is undergoing strabismus surgery under anesthesia with sevoflurane, nitrous oxide, and oxygen. The heart rate suddenly decreases from 85 to 40 bpm. Which of the following is the most appropriate first step in management?


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ADVANCED Pediatric  

Which of the following is an effect of hypothermia in neonates?


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ADVANCED Pediatric   Regional & Pain  

Compared with adults, caudal anesthesia in children is associated with


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ADVANCED Respiratory & Critical Care   Pediatric  

A 60-kg, 17-year-old girl with severe idiopathic scoliosis is scheduled for Harrington rod fixation. Which of the following respiratory parameters is compatible with this disorder?


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ADVANCED Pediatric  

A 2.8-kg newborn undergoes repair of a moderate-sized omphalocele. Intravenous fluid is administered at 14 mL/hr. Forty-five minutes after beginning surgery and before reduction of the omphalocele, arterial blood pressure decreases from 80/40 to 55/30 mmHg. SaO2 is 98% at an FiO2 of 0.5. Breath sounds are equal bilaterally. Which of the following is the most likely explanation for the decrease in blood pressure?


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ADVANCED Pediatric  

A 5-year-old child undergoes strabismus correction during spontaneous ventilation with halothane 1.5%, nitrous oxide and oxygen 50%. Intravenous atropine 0.2 mg is administered after inhalation induction. Ten minutes after incision, heart rate decreases from 110 bpm to 40 bpm. Which of the following is the most likely cause?


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ADVANCED Pediatric  

A full-term newborn has marked respiratory distress in the delivery room. Breath sounds are asymmetric and the abdomen is scaphoid. Which of the following maneuvers is most appropriate?


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ADVANCED Pediatric   Cardiac  

A 14-month-old child has tetralogy of Fallot with dynamic obstruction to right ventricular outflow. Which of the following is most likely to decrease cyanosis in this child?


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ADVANCED Pediatric   Cardiac  

A 1100-g, 10-day-old infant is to undergo ligation of a patent ductus arteriosus after unsuccessful medical treatment. Within three minutes of intravenous administration of atropine 20 mcg, fentanyl 20 mcg, and pancuronium 0.1 mg, systemic blood pressure decreases from 80 to 30 mmHg, heart rate from 180 to 140 bpm, and arterial oxygen saturation from 90% to 80%. The most appropriate management is to


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BASIC Equipment & Physics   Pediatric  

The lungs of a 7-kg infant are being ventilated with a volume-cycled ventilator at a rate of 20/min. The anesthetic circuit has a compressible volume of 5 ml/cm H2O, and the peak inspiratory pressure is 20 cmH2O. To achieve adequate ventilation, the ventilator tidal volume should be set at


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ADVANCED Respiratory & Critical Care   Pediatric  

A 14-year-old girl with status asthmaticus is receiving oxygen 3 L/min through nasal prongs. Heart rate is 110 bpm. Arterial blood gas values are PaO2 90 mmHg, PaCO2 32 mmHg, and pH 7.46. If ventilation appears unchanged, which of the following is the most reliable sign of impending respiratory failure?


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ADVANCED Transfusions & Fluids   Pediatric  

An 8-kg, 5-month-old infant undergoes craniotomy for an arteriovenous malformation. During the procedure, severe hemorrhaging occurs and packed red blood cells 3 units are transfused rapidly. During infusion of the third unit, hypotension, nodal bigeminy, and prolongation of the QT interval are noted. The most appropriate management includes administration of


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ADVANCED Pediatric   Regional & Pain  

In an Infant, spinal anesthesia to a sensory level of T8 is achieved with tetracaine administered at the L2-3 interspace. Compared with spinal anesthesia to the same sensory level in an adult, this anesthetic is associated with a


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ADVANCED Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics   Pediatric  

When succinylcholine is administered intravenously to infants, intragastric pressure


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ADVANCED Pediatric  

Compared with normal adults, which of the following characteristics of neonates best explains the more rapid inhalation induction in neonates?


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ADVANCED Pediatric  

The most beneficial effect of continuous positive airway pressure in a newborn with respiratory distress syndrome is


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ADVANCED Pediatric   OB  

Following maternal epidural injection, fetal exposure to chloroprocaine is lower than fetal exposure to bupivacaine for which of the following reasons?


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ADVANCED Pediatric  

Compared with the adult airway, the neonatal airway has which of the following characteristics?


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ADVANCED Pediatric   Cardiac  

A 5-month-old infant with tetralogy of Fallot is scheduled for elective inguinal herniorrhaphy. Which of the following would require the operation to be postponed?


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ADVANCED Pediatric  

Which of the following conditions decreases right-to-left shunt through a patent ductus arteriosus in a neonate?


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ADVANCED Pediatric  

During an inguinal hernia repair, a newborn infant will have a larger fluid requirement (in milliliters per kilogram) than an adult because of relatively greater


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ADVANCED Pediatric  

The MAC of a volatile anesthetic agent is greatest when administered to which of the following groups of healthy patients?


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ADVANCED Pediatric  

Which of the following statements concerning cardiovascular physiology in a healthy term neonate is true?


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ADVANCED Pediatric  

Which of the following features is characteristic of the airway in a neonate?


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ADVANCED Pediatric  

The newborn infant of an 18-year-old heroin addict has an initial Apgar score of 1. After intubation of the trachea and ventilation with pure oxygen, the Apgar score is 3 at five minutes. Appropriate management at this time would include administration of each of the following EXCEPT


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ADVANCED Pediatric  

A 2600-g neonate is to undergo surgical repair of a small gastroschisis. The infant is preoxygenated with 100% oxygen. Arterial hemoglobin desaturation is noted during laryngoscopy after a rapid-sequence induction. Which of the following is the most likely cause?


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BASIC Pediatric   General  

Each of the following structures may participate in causing acute bradycardia during strabismus surgery EXCEPT the


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ADVANCED Pediatric  

A 3.3-kg neonate is brought to the operating room for repair of a left diaphragmatic hernia. A 3-mm endotracheal tube is placed to a depth of 9 cm. Initial arterial blood gas values from a right radial catheter while spontaneously breathing oxygen 50% are PaO2 82 mmHg, PaCO2 41 mmHg, pH 7.33, and base excess -5. After reduction of the hernia (during closure of the abdomen), vigorous attempts to expand the atelectatic lung are unsuccessful. The infant rapidly becomes very dusky, heart rate is 60 bpm, breath sounds are distant and squeaky bilaterally, and pulmonary compliance is decreased. Which of the following should be done first?


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ADVANCED Pediatric  

A 3-day-old infant is comatose 18 hours after surgical correction of transposition of the great vessels. Tracheal suctioning produces only a tachycardic response. Anesthesia included midazolam 0.5 mg/kg, fentanyl 60 mcg/kg, and pancuronium 0.3 mg/kg. Which of the following is the most appropriate first step in evaluation of this infant?


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ADVANCED Equipment & Physics   Pediatric  

A 2-year-old child has cardiac arrest during an inguinal herniorrhaphy under general anesthesia administered during a Jackson-Rees system. The graph shows end-tidal PCO2 monitored from the tip of the endotracheal tube during cardiopulmonary resuscitation; minute ventilation is unchanged. Which of the following is the most likely cause of the change beginning at the arrow?

1992a 22

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ADVANCED Pediatric  

A mechanically ventilated newborn infant is undergoing gastroschisis repair during halothane anesthesia. Based on the right radial artery catheter tracing shown, which of the following is the most appropriate conclusion?

1996b 39

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ADVANCED Pediatric  

A healthy 10-kg child is flushed and restless after premedication with meperidine 15 mg and scopolamine 0.2 mg intramuscularly. His skin is warm and dry; temperature is 38°C, pulse is 130 bpm, and blood pressure is 90/60 mmHg. The most likely cause is


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ADVANCED Pediatric  

Which of the following statements concerning fetal hemoglobin is true?


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ADVANCED Pediatric  

The rate of induction with inhalational agents is more rapid in neonates than adults because of a relatively increased


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BASIC Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics   Pediatric  

Which of the following is the most likely effect of intramuscular ketamine used for induction of anesthesia in a 2-year-old child undergoing elective surgery?


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ADVANCED Respiratory & Critical Care   Pediatric  

A 1-month-old infant becomes hypoxemic faster during apnea than an adult. Which of the following is the primary cause of this difference?


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ADVANCED Pediatric  

Which of the following is suggestive of epiglottitis rather than croup?


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ADVANCED Pediatric  

Compared with adults, neonates are more likely to become hypoxemic following anesthesia and extubation because of a relatively


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ADVANCED Pediatric  

During prolonged labor, a fetal scalp blood sample shows a PO2 of 21 mmHg, a PCO2 of 46 mmHg, and a pH of 7.35. These findings suggest


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ADVANCED Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics   Pediatric  

Each of the following is a characteristic of prostaglandin E1 (alprostadil) pharmacology in an infant EXCEPT:


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ADVANCED Pediatric  

Compared with adult hemoglobin, which of the following is a characteristic of fetal hemoglobin?


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ADVANCED Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics   Pediatric  

Compared with similar use in adults, routine use of succinylcholine in children is hazardous because of the increased risk for which of the following?


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ADVANCED Pediatric  

A 2.3-kg 1-day-old term infant requires repair of a gastroschisis. Which of the following combinations is most appropriate for intraoperative fluid management?


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ADVANCED Pediatric   OB  

A parturient receives ketamine 2 mg/kg and succinylcholine 1.5 mg/kg for induction prior to elective cesarean delivery. Which of the following is most likely to be present in the newborn infant?


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ADVANCED Pediatric  

Acute epiglottitis usually


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ADVANCED Pharmacology & Pharmacokinetics   Pediatric  

Inhalation induction of anesthesia is more rapid in a 6-month-old infant than in an adult because infants have


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ADVANCED Pediatric  

A 2500-g, 12-hour-old infant is tracheally intubated and mechanically ventilated at a rate of 20/min with an FiO2 of 0.4 and peak inspiratory pressure of 25 cmH2O. At birth, amniotic fluid was meconium stained and Apgar scores were 2 and 7. The most recent arterial blood gas levels are PaO2, 50 mmHg, PaCO2, 55 mmHg, and pH 7.20. The most appropriate management is to


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ADVANCED Equipment & Physics   Pediatric  

The principal rationale for the use of warmed humidified inspired anesthetic gases in children is to


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ADVANCED Pediatric  

A meconium-stained, full-term infant has an initial Apgar score of 2. The oropharynx is suctioned and the infant is placed on a heated table. Which of the following is the most appropriate next step in management of the airway?


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ADVANCED Pediatric  

A newborn infant is undergoing repair of gastroschisis. During closure of the abdominal wall, ventilatory pressures and central venous pressure increase markedly. The most appropriate management is to


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ADVANCED Respiratory & Critical Care   Pediatric  

A child has tachypnea immediately after reintubation for intractable laryngospasm. Oxygen saturation is 78% at an FiO2 of 1.0. A radiograph of the chest taken 15 minutes later is most likely to show


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ADVANCED Pediatric   Neuro  

During Harrington rod instrumentation for scoliosis, monitoring somatosensory evoked potentials


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ADVANCED Pediatric  

An infant is delivered by forceps following labor in which variable decelerations were noted. Amniotic fluid was clear. Initial evaluation shows a cyanotic, limp infant with a heart rate of 80 bpm, poor respiratory efforts, and grimacing in response to suctioning. The most appropriate method of resuscitation for this newborn is


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ADVANCED Respiratory & Critical Care   Pediatric  

A 35-kg child requires mechanical ventilation with 100% oxygen at a tidal volume of 350 mL and a rate of 20/min during a severe asthma attack. The most likely cause of severe hypotension after initiating mechanical ventilation is


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ADVANCED Pediatric  

A 4-year-old child has just undergone a one-hour tonsillectomy with a volatile anesthetic, nitrous oxide, and oxygen. Which of the following will result in the most rapid emergence?


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ADVANCED Pediatric  

During ligation of a patent ductus arteriosus, a newborn infant receives a total gas flow of 5 L/min through a nonheated Jackson-Rees system. Operating room temperature is maintained at 30°C. The primary cause of a rapid decrease in rectal temperature from 36.8°C to 35°C is


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ADVANCED Equipment & Physics   Pediatric  

A child undergoing general anesthesia is breathing spontaneously using the Jackson-Rees modification of the Ayres T-piece. Respiratory rate is 20/min and tidal volume is 75 ml. What is the minimum fresh gas flow required to prevent rebreathing?


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ADVANCED Pediatric  

A 7-year-old, obese, 30-kg boy was anesthetized using an adult circle system containing a 3-liter bag and mask. Induction with nitrous oxide (2 liters), oxygen (1 liter), and enflurane 3% was characterized by three minutes of hyperventilation followed by apnea. Forty-five seconds later, the child moved and became difficult to control. The most likely cause of the movement is


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BASIC Equipment & Physics   Pediatric  

A 27-month-old, 14-kg infant with intestinal obstruction is anesthetized with nitrous oxide at 1 L/min, oxygen at 0.4 L/min, and halothane at 0.8% using a Bain circuit. Ventilation is controlled at a rate of 30/min. The child's temperature is 39°C, and the PaCO2 is 65 mmHg. Which of the following is most likely?


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ADVANCED Pediatric  

A 1150-g, 10-day-old infant is undergoing a bowel resection for necrotizing enterocolitis. Heart rate is 200 bpm and blood pressure measured through a femoral artery catheter is 45/24 mmHg. The most appropriate next step is administration of


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ADVANCED Pediatric   Neuro  

A 6-year-old boy undergoes craniotomy in the supine position for brain tumor during anesthesia with 1.5% isoflurane in oxygen. PetCO2 is 38 mmHg, heart rate is 78 bpm, and blood pressure is 130/80 mmHg. After opening the dura, the surgeon notes that the brain is bulging. Which of the following management options is LEAST likely to significantly decrease brain size?


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ADVANCED Pediatric  

A 2.8-kg 8-hour-old infant undergoes laparotomy for a ruptured omphalocele. Following primary closure of the abdominal wall, arterial blood gases are PaO2 40 mmHg (FiO2 0.6), PaCO2 55 mmHg, and pH 7.1. Blood pressure is 30/20 mmHg. After increasing the FiO2, the most appropriate action would be to


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ADVANCED Pediatric   Cardiac  

Which of the following results in the greatest increase in right-to-left shunting in an infant with cyanotic heart disease?


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ADVANCED Respiratory & Critical Care   Pediatric  

A 20-kg, 5-year-old boy under treatment for five days for a cerebral contusion not requiring an operation is still unconscious. After three days of mechanical ventilation, humidified oxygen 40% via T-tube is started. Arterial blood gas analysis shows PaO2 120 mmHg, PaCO2 44 mmHg, pH 7.48, and base excess +6. A nasogastric tube is in place and draining to gravity. Daily fluid therapy has been 5% dextrose in 0.5 normal saline solution 500 ml and 5% dextrose in lactated Ringer's solution 500 ml. Serum electrolyte concentrations are sodium 140, potassium 3.2, and chloride 91 mEq/L. Serum osmolality is 300 mOsm/L. Urine output averages 15 ml/hour. Dexamethasone 8 mg/day has been the only drug therapy. This patient most likely requires


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ADVANCED Pediatric  

Which of the following is characteristic of the airway in a 2-month-oId infant when compared with an adult airway?


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ADVANCED Pediatric   OB  

Which of the following would be most likely to result in neonatal depression when administered to a healthy parturient during an uncomplicated labor and vaginal delivery?


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ADVANCED Equipment & Physics   Pediatric  

In a 5-kg child, the end-tidal carbon dioxide tension is 35 mmHg during spontaneous ventilation through a Mapleson D system. Which single change is most likely to increase this value?


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ADVANCED Pediatric   Regional & Pain  

In an infant, spinal anesthesia to a sensory level of T8 is achieved with tetracaine administered at the L2-3 interspace. Compared with spinal anesthesia to the same sensory level in an adult, this anesthetic is associated with a


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ADVANCED Pediatric  

Which of the following is true of both the neonatal and adult airways?


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ADVANCED Pediatric  

A newborn is in respiratory distress. Examination shows a scaphoid abdomen, cyanosis while breathing oxygen by mask, and heart sounds in the right hemithorax. Which of the following is the most appropriate next step?


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ADVANCED Pediatric  

You are asked to evaluate a 2000-g male infant three hours after vaginal delivery because of a respiratory rate of 50/min, pulse rate of 115 bpm, and the following arterial blood gas values while breathing room air: PaO2 64 mmHg, PaCO2 43 mmHg, and pH 7.33. His mother received meperidine 75 mg two hours before delivery. Appropriate management includes


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ADVANCED Pediatric  

In children with preoperative upper respiratory tract infection, which of the following is associated with the greatest risk for postoperative airway obstruction?


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ADVANCED Pediatric   Cardiac  

An 18-month-old child with tetralogy of Fallot is anesthetized with halothane and nitrous oxide. Following intubation, oxygen saturation decreases abruptly from 85% to 45%. The most effective treatment is


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ADVANCED Pediatric  

A 10-week-old infant born at 28 weeks gestation is scheduled for elective repair of bilateral inguinal hernias. It is most appropriate to


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ADVANCED Respiratory & Critical Care   Pediatric  

The adult oxyhemoglobin dissociation curve will resemble that of the fetus in the presence of


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ADVANCED Pediatric  

Which of the following best explains why neonates are at greater risk than adults for hypothermia during surgical procedures?


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ADVANCED Pediatric  

After an uncomplicated cesarean delivery, a full-term neonate has intermittent cyanosis. Diaphragmatic effort is vigorous and respiratory distress is relieved while crying. The most likely diagnosis is


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ADVANCED Pediatric  

Thirty-six hours after primary repair of meningomyelocele, a term newborn has frequent periods of apnea lasting 25 seconds and associated with oxygen desaturation to 80%. The most likely explanation is


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BASIC Equipment & Physics   Pediatric  

The capnographic tracing is from a 2-month-old infant anesthetized using a pediatric circle system and mask at a fresh gas flow of 4 L/min. The sampling port is in the elbow connector. This tracing indicates

1992b 39

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ADVANCED Pediatric  

In calculating the fluid requirements for a newborn undergoing repair of an omphalocele, the third-space loss should be replaced by


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ADVANCED Pediatric  

Compared with adults, neonates are more likely to become hypoxemic following anesthesia and extubation because of a relatively


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ADVANCED Pediatric  

Compared with adults, neonatal respiratory function is characterized by


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